Posts Tagged ‘cash’

The Future Of Your Business: Succession or Exit?

Thursday, May 5th, 2011

Our guest this week is Jim Pullen of Concert Partners. His career has included cross-border mergers and acquisitions of international technology companies. He is a senior advisor to Tequity, a specialist M&A firm in the technology sector.

Succession or exit – it’s a stark choice, but since we are all mortal, one of these is going to happen!

A recent study of Canadian businesses showed that while 70% recognized that a transition or exit will have to take place, only 7% had a plan! And incidentally, selling at the best price at the right time doesn’t constitute a plan!

I worked for an international mergers and acquisitions company in both London (UK) and Boston (USA). While I was there we carried out a study of 250 M&A transactions we were involved in, over a span of 8 years.  The transactions took place in Europe, US, and Canada. 

We wanted to find the key areas that buyers looked for in a transaction.  Based on the study, we developed a framework for ranking and assessing a company on the factors that were proven to drive a valuation.

The main areas of value enhancement that emerged are described below.

1. Financial

This category includes basic financial metrics such as profitability and revenue growth.  Companies with high profit margins and high rates of revenue growth obviously command a higher valuation. 

Other aspects include the type of revenues a company generates.  Recurring revenues can add to a valuation as it makes the company’s cash flow more predictable. So, for example, a company that sells big ticket one-off products could look to build up more of an offering around maintenance and post-sales services for their product – where they can sign their clients into multi-year maintenance contracts. 

Companies with strong cash generation are also more attractive to buyers.  They are able to take on more debt that can be used to finance growth.  It also makes a leveraged buy-out possible.

2.   Market & barriers to entry

In this category the factors include the strength of customer relationships and degree of uniqueness the company enjoys in its market.  Companies that have a direct and strong relationship with the end users/purchasers of their product will get a higher valuation.

Brand, which clearly has to be part of a long-term strategy, plays a large role in the value a buyer places on a company.  We found that a strong brand can make up to 70% of the value in a company.

In terms of barriers to entry, companies should use many mechanisms to defend their position. Examples are legal protection though patents and trademarks, exclusive relationships with key suppliers, and building internal expertise through strategic hiring.  Anything a company can do to make it harder for competitors to enter their space will help command a premium on valuation. 

3. Human resources

In this category, the framework looks at both technical skills and management skills.  As companies grow, it is important to distribute the key skill sets deeply across the organization.  Often after an exit, the founders will want to leave, either because they have a large financial gain or they prefer to be entrepreneurs over working in a large corporation.  A buyer will place a premium on a deep management team so the company can continue to innovate and execute even with the loss of the founders.

4. Strategic fit

This factor relates to the degree that the company being acquired is a strategic fit for the buyer’s product portfolio.  We have seen cases where buyers are willing to pay a 50%-70% price premium for a company that fills out a missing piece of their product portfolio and gives them access to the markets and expertise. 

Partnerships are an excellent way to lay the foundation with a potential buyer.  A partnership is a low-commitment way for them to get deeper experience with a potential acquisition. If things work out well and strategic synergies start to develop then it is easy to take the step towards a deeper relationship.
5. Governance

The last factor involves good governance.  We have found that a strong board of directors can add a 25% premium to the value of a company.  This is due to the buyer having more assurance that the company has been well governed and there will be no unexpected surprises they need to deal with.

A Few Final Thoughts.

There are 3 main ways in which the succession issue can be handled: a younger generation of the family takes over; the executives buy out the owner via a management or leveraged buy-out (MBO/LBO); or there is a liquidity event (the shares are given some realizable value) by means of a trade sale or listing on a public market (Initial Public Offering or IPO).

Whichever route is taken, it is clearly in the shareholders’ interest to maximize the value of the business prior to that event.  The ideal time to begin that process is on day one, but it may not be too late; 2 years is a realistic timescale in which to groom a company for sale/transition.

Let me leave you with 2 thoughts. Begin thinking about it today. And get some help from people with experience.

Jim currently provides corporate development consulting services and mentors early stage businesses at the ventureLAB in Markham. You can contact him at


6 Tips for Managing in Recessions

Sunday, July 26th, 2009

Despite what the media suggest, the recession will not lay waste to every company and household in Canada. Some will be seriously affected and my sympathy lies with them. However, for most of us the impact will be bearable. We know from experience that there are things you can do to mitigate, even minimize, the impact of a recession and articles containing tips and suggestions are already becoming quite common. Here are 6 of what I consider to be the most valuable ideas from the articles I’ve read recently.

Tip # 1. The best time to look for money is before you need it, so make contingency plans now. Do a spreadsheet analysis of the impact of a 5 or 10% decline in sales on your cash flow. Go and talk to your Bank, they’re tightening their terms and restrictions already but they will work with you if you’re a good customer. It’s also a good idea to build a relationship with a second Bank, if you haven’t already done so.

Tip # 2. Look inside the company for cash, for example….can you renegotiate payment terms with your suppliers to avoid borrowing money to pay them? Or will they give you a discount for cash payments? Can you trade off extended lead times, less than 100% fill rates, variable (but not unacceptable) product or service quality against price reductions to improve your gross margins? Sell off unproductive assets, aggressively discount and sell slow moving (i.e. almost dead) inventory, don’t let your Accounts Receivable extend their payments.

Tip # 3. Don’t Lower Prices – Add Value. Avoid the temptation – and pressure – to cut your prices. It will be almost impossible to raise them again later. Either launch a de-featured version of your current product or service and attach a lower price point to that. Or talk to your customers and find out what they need to deal with their challenges and find other ways to “add value” to your current offerings without inflating the cost.

Tip # 4. Don’t make deep cuts to headcount. Letting good employees go can have serious long term effects. You immediately lose the investment you made in training and developing them and you lose an employee whose strengths – and weaknesses – you know. It’s also not uncommon to find that an employee you’ve laid off carried far more knowledge about the operation of the company in their memory than you had realized – and didn’t write it down before they left. There are always some employees who are not pulling their weight. If you have to let anyone go, release them.

Tip # 5. Don’t make deep cuts to promotional activities. Resist the temptation to reduce your promotional budget. If you’ve spent money to create awareness you’ll lose the benefits of that investment if you stop or dramatically reduce your expenditures on, for example, Trade Shows, Advertising and Sponsorships. Look critically at the response rates for your promotional activities and freshen the message or switch dollars from one tool to something more effective – but don’t make deep cuts to the total dollars.

Tip # 6. Help your employees cope. Watch for signs that your employees – particularly the key members of your team – are having problems coping with the recession personally. Everyone makes bad decisions occasionally and, given the easy access to credit of the last few years, many people have overextended themselves. Help them find the advice or counselling they need to deal with their temporary problems. Don’t solve their problems for them – but support them while they do it themselves.

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